Land & Building Experts - RETIREMENT HOME (2023)

Retirement homes in Ontario are a form of senior housing where seniors pay for accommodation and care services. Independent and assisted living retirement homes in Ontario do not receive government funding and seniors pay the full cost of accommodation and any care services they purchase, including meals, assistance with bathing, personal hygiene, dressing or mobility, dementia care, administering of medication and incontinence care

Seniors can receive care within the independent and assisted living retirement homes from external providers, including publicly-funded health services. There are no specific criteria for seniors to be eligible to live in an independent and/or assisted living a retirement home. Seniors who wish to live in an independent and assisted living retirement home enter a tenancy relationship with the retirement home and decide which care services to purchase.

The life expectancy has almost doubled within the last century in Ontario due to reduced mortality rates in infancy and childhood as well as reduced mortality rates at older ages. The fastest growing segment of the of seniors in Ontario is those over 85 years old. The number of centenarians is increasing at a rate of 8% a year. The senior population in Ontario is expected to almost double in the next few decades. Wait times for seniors to obtain accommodation at independent and assisted living retirement homes in Ontario have been steadily increasing for years, and new independent and assisted living retirement homes will be required to accommodate more than 200,000 seniors within next 20 years. 14 % of Ontario's population are seniors and the population of seniors is projected to grow to 20% by 2036. There are no Province of Ontario subsidies available for private assisted living facilities for seniors, but Province of Ontario offer several financial aid programs for seniors. Low-income seniors are eligible to apply for assistance via the Guaranteed Annual Income System from Government of Canada.

As the elderly population grows in Ontario, and subsequently the need for adequate elderly health and housing services grows, the resources to provide services will decrease. Finding a more efficient means of service delivery is of critical importance. The current connections between seniors’ health and housing are tenuous at best.

According to the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation's 2013 Seniors' Housing Report, average monthly rent in Ontario for living at an assisted living retirement home was $3,204 in 2013 and monthly rent for heavy-care living at a retirement home averaged $4,584. The current monthly accommodation costs paid by seniors living in independent and assisted living retirement homes in Ontario are approximately $1,850 and up for a basic room, $2,225 and up for a semi-private room and $2,650 to $4,500 (and higher) for a private room, depending on the size and location of the accommodations, the type of assisted living community, and the quality and number of amenities. New construction of an independent and assisted living retirement home in Ontario would cost $200,000 to $260,000 per room in start-up costs or about $5 million to $6.5 million for an average-sized location with 25 rooms.

As the elderly population in Ontario grows, the rate of construction of independent and assisted living retirement homes in Ontario is not keeping pace. Independent and assisted living retirement homes under construction in Ontario began a significant decline in 2008 and continued to fall through 2011 with only recent modest growth. The need that is left unaddressed is the growing market for newer and better independent and assisted living retirement homes tailored to emerging elderly population in Ontario.

Independent and assisted living retirement homes in Ontario including retirement homes in Acton, Ajax, Alliston, Angus, Aurora, Aylmer, Ayr, Barrie, Beamsville, Beeton, Belleville, Blue Mountains, Bobcaygeon, Bolton, Borden, Bowmanville, Bradford, Brampton, Brant, Brantford, Bracebridge, Brighton, Brock, Burlington, Caledon, Caledon East, Caledonia, Cambridge, Campbellford, Clarington, Collingwood, Cobourg, Crystal Beach, Delhi, Dunnville, East Gwillimbury, Elmira, Erin, Exeter, Fergus, Fort Erie, Georgetown, Georgina, Grand Valley, Gravenhurst, Greater Napanee, Grimsby, Guelph, Haldimand County, Halton Hills, Hamilton, Hanover, Huntsville, Ingersoll, Innisfil, Kawartha Lakes, Keswick, King, Kitchener, Lincoln, Lindsay, Listowel, London, Markham, Meaford, Midland, Milton, Minto, Mississauga, Mono, Mitchell, Mount Albert, Mount Forest, New Hamburg, New Tecumseth, Newcastle, Newmarket, Niagara Falls, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Nobleton, Norfolk County, Oakville, Orangeville, Orillia, Oshawa, Owen Sound, Paris, Parry Sound, Pelham, Penetanguishene, Peterborough, Pickering, Picton, Port Colborne, Port Dover, Port Elgin, Port Hope, Port Perry, Prince Edward County, Quinte West, Richmond Hill, Rockwood, St.Catharines, St. Marys, St. Thomas, Scugog, Shelburne, Simcoe, Southampton, South Bruce Peninsula, Stayner, Stouffville, Stratford, Strathroy, Sutton, Tay, Thorold, Tillsonburg, Toronto, Tottenham, Uxbridge, Vaughan, Vineland, Walkerton, Wasaga Beach, Waterloo, Welland, West Gwillimbury, Whitby, and Woodstock are well positioned for success in all phases of the real estate cycle. Retirement home as an asset class has been historically difficult for average investors to access until recently. Institutional investors and specialized operators have been the primary beneficiaries concentrating on independent and assisted living retirement homes.

Now astute individual investors in Ontario can also capitalize on these trends and earn strong yields in constructing a new independent and assisted living retirement home.

The rapidly aging population in Ontario is fueling demand for independent and assisted living retirement homes that are in short supply. This is the main driver for growth and why retirement home has continuously proven to be a strong real estate asset class regardless of the condition of the overall economy in Ontario.

A very detailed due diligence process takes place on each design and build of an independent and assisted living retirement home to ensure every new retirement home development is a success for investors and seniors alike. The projected returns of 13% to 21% are exceptional given the relative low risk of the investment in design and build of independent and assisted living retirement homes in Ontario.

A major benefit for investors in the design and build of an independent and assisted living retirement home is the resiliency of this sector of the commercial market in Ontario. A key component of the retirement home’s success in Ontario is its lack of reliance on an economic or real estate environment. Independent and assisted living retirement home has been the number one performing commercial real estate sector in Ontario for the last fifteen years. This includes the period encompassing the 2007 capital market collapse, in-which returns among other commercial sectors fell as much as 20%.

Design and build of niche ethnic independent and assisted living retirement communities for seniors are growing in Ontario as the generation of baby boomers accustomed to moulding traditional institutions in their image are now reaching retirement age.

There is no social exclusion or a lack of peer support in assisted living and independent living retirement homes where every senior is similar in age, has been raised with the same shared values and has shared experiences of the past.

Separated by language from the Canadian mainstream, retired immigrant seniors mostly hung out with other seniors living with them at their independent and/or assisted living retirement home facilities in their language group for the comfort of being with seniors familiar with their foods, languages and cultural tradition.

Immigrant children in Ontario turn to retirement homes that cater to specific ethnicity, offering traditional cuisines and activities, and employing staff who speak their mother tongues. The idea is to remind the seniors who live at the independent and assisted living retirement homes of their youth, encouraging feelings of happiness and belonging to their community.

Ethnic retirement homes for the retired seniors in Ontario like Villa Colombo, for Italian-Canadians, has a restaurant and a wine list. At Hellenic Retirement Home for Greek-Canadians, Kalamatiano, a traditional Greek dance is performed almost daily and even those seniors in wheelchairs, wave around scarves, clapping to the music. Seniors gather in the common space to socialize, drink Greek coffee and play backgammon while some seniors make Koulourakia, traditional Greek cookies, honey balls and dolma with retirement home staff in a kitchen. For therapeutic purpose. Hellenic Retirement Home even has a yearly petting zoo, with sheep, to cheer up those who had livestock in Greece.

Doing such things gives the seniors living in an independent and assisted living retirement home, a sense of pride and accomplishment. Such activities are designed to engage the seniors who live at independent and assisted living retirement homes, some of them with Alzheimer’s and dementia, allowing them to smell, taste and touch materials while reminiscing about their past.

Seeking an independent and assisted living retirement home according to the ethnicity is still challenging because demand for such retirement homes is greater than availability.

Retirement homes such as Hellenic Retirement Home and Yee Hong Retirement Home keep ethnicity and culture in mind when determining everything from menus to fundraisers to daily activities to provide an atmosphere that is both comfortable, familiar and reminiscent of the native land to the seniors who reside at the retirement home.

With onsite yoga, Indian movies and Indian cuisine, the first retirement home in the United States catering to seniors born in India, ShantiNiketan resembles an Indian village,

Seniors living in ethnic-specific retirement homes have better verbal communication with other seniors of the retirement home, and lower anti-psychotic medication prescription rates. Seniors who live at Yee Hong Retirement Home do Chinese calligraphy and play mah-jong, activities they participated in when they were young.

Seniors living in an ethnic-specific retirement home benefit from having a sense of cultural safety and familiarity. Ethnic retirement homes allow the seniors to communicate in their native languages, enjoy their own cuisine and participate in culturally specific activities. Knowing their parents are receiving ethnically-oriented care from retirement home staff who understand specific customs, traditions, language and spiritual requirements, helps give both children and their parents peace of mind.

Ontario introduced the Retirement Homes Act in 2010 to protect seniors living in retirement homes.

The act is the first of its kind in Ontario and requires retirement homes to obtain a license and comply with requirements including:

  • mandatory standards for care services, including assessments and plans of care for new residents
  • mandatory safety plans, including emergency planning, to address fire and other risks
  • mandatory staff training held at least once a year
  • police-conducted vulnerable sector screening of staff and volunteers

It also ensures the rights of residents, including the right to:

  • know the true cost of care and accommodation
  • live in an environment that promotes zero tolerance of abuse or neglect

The act also created the Retirement Homes Regulatory Authority (RHRA) that:

  • licenses and inspects retirement homes
  • investigates consumer complaints
  • enforces the act
  • educates licensees, consumers and the public

The Ontario Retirement Homes Act, 2010 sets out the legal standards and requirements for all retirement homes to operate safely and successfully. Under the Act, all homes defined as a “retirement home” must apply for and obtain a licence.

Retirement homes in Ontario that operate without a licence may be subject to enforcement measures, which could include monetary penalties and up to and including imprisonment.

All retirement homes in Ontario are required to post their license in a place where it is easily seen in the retirement home. A “retirement home” for the purposes of the Act is as follows:

A building or related group of buildings, or a part of a building or a part of a related group of buildings, with one or more rental units of living accommodation that meets the following criteria:

Occupied primarily by seniors;

Occupied or intended to be occupied by at least six seniors who are not related to the operator of the home;

Makes at least two of the 13 care services set out in the Act (and listed below) available, directly or indirectly, to residents.

  • Administration of a drug
  • Assistance with bathing
  • Assistance with dressing
  • Assistance with ambulation
  • The provisions of a dementia care program
  • Any service that a member of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario provides while engaging in the practice of medicine
  • Any service that a member of the Ontario College of Pharmacists provides while engaging in the practice of pharmacy
  • Assistance with feeding
  • Continence care
  • Assistance with personal hygiene
  • Provisions of a meal
  • Provision of a skin and wound care program
  • Any service that a member of the College of Nurses of Ontario provides while engaging in the practice of nursing

The Retirement Homes Regulatory Authority maintains a public register to find a licensed retirement home that meets the needs and preferences.

(Video) THE BIG MEDICAID SECRET NURSING HOMES WON'T TELL YOU

To obtain a Retirement Home license in Ontario, a person must apply to the Registrar of the Retirement Homes Regulatory Authority.

The Registrar will decide whether to issue a Retirement Home licence based on these three criteria:

  • the past conduct of the people who own or control the operations of the retirement home;
  • the ability of the retirement home to provide care services; and
  • competency to operate the retirement home in a responsible manner in accordance with the Retirement Home Act.

The Registrar may issue a Retirement Home license with conditions. The Registrar’s decisions to refuse to issue a Retirement Home license or to issue a Retirement Home license with a condition, may be appealed through the License Appeal Tribunal (LAT). A person must have a Retirement Home license to operate a retirement home in Ontario and must meet the standards in the Retirement Home Act.

The Retirement Home license relates to a specific retirement home and does not transfer to another owner through a purchase or sale of the retirement home. When a licensee sells the retirement home, the new owner of the retirement home must apply for a Retirement Home licence.

Our design features of a retirement home depend on the type of retirement home, the scale of the retirement home, the type and level of services and supports provided by the retirement home, and the unique development of a retirement home project. We design retirement home with seniors’ comfort and safety in mind.

Our retirement home designers always create spaces that encourage more seniors’ activity and participation, and spaces that are calmer and more restful for the seniors.

Seniors require evenly distributed, background illumination and task lighting that is two to three times greater than younger adults. During nighttime visits to the bathroom, a night light, lighted toggle switch, chemically-luminous doorknob cover, or motion-sensitive light increase visual orientation.

The colors of red or dark neutrals against a light background and yellow or white against a dark background are easier for the elderly person to discern than are greens/blues/purples or pastel shades from each other. Contrast of colors also can aid a retired senior to distinguish objects in the environment.

Our Retirement Home Bathroom Features include

  • Maneuvering space for mobility aids
  • Toilet with grab bars along the wall
  • Raised toilet seats
  • Wall colour that contrasts with sanitary facilities
  • Non-slip and non-glare flooring
  • Lever handles and lever style faucets in the sink and shower
  • Full clearance below sinks to allow for wheelchair use
  • Rocker light switches & motion-triggered washroom lights
  • Adjacent to bedroom for fast and convenient access
  • Seating to make it easier to dress/undress
  • Grab bars within shower stall
  • Wheelchair accessible walk-in shower
  • Wide seat in shower
  • Furnitures properly fit with floor plan and layout
  • State-of-the-art call two-way communications - The 24 hour call button in all units make the seniors feel a lot safer
  • Wi-Fi that eases communication between the seniors and their loved ones
  • Recreational services like pools and gyms.
  • Access to gardens and lifelong learning
  • Two public spaces – one located in the front of the building where the action typically is, and the other located in a more private space for those who prefer to get away from it all. Seniors love hanging around the entrance. They sit out there all day, watching people and saying hello to all.

Seniors experience a high rate of accidents and these result in more than twice the number of resulting deaths than other age groups. The most serious related issues result from falls and burns. Falls represent a critical accident hazard for the elderly and the harder the floor surface, the greater the risk of fracture.

Non-skid mats and abrasive strips decrease falls in the bathtub or shower, as do grab bars installed on the walls. These grab bars must be attached through the tile to structural supports in the wall. The wall may need a built-in block to support at least 125 kg. Grab bars may also be installed near the toilet and a raised toilet seat will accommodate those with compromised joint mobility. Slip resistant vinyl flooring lessens the chance of slipping and softens the surface.

Our architects design operationally efficient retirement homes for assisted living and independent living. The municipal authorities now require that all the retirement homes shall be accessible and barrier free. Our retirement home designers place equal focus on the internal and external spaces, creating several social spaces to bring people together.

Domestic spheres have a significant impact on the capacity that seniors must retain a sense of self-determination. Aging residents of a retirement home require adequate, accessible, and personalized space to facilitate routine and responsibilities. Our municipal engineers make sure that the final site grading of a retirement home property be gently sloping with landscaped outdoor spaces, accessible pedestrian walkways and parking. Plants are important to the general environment of the retirement housing.

Our retirement home designers include a weather protected passenger drop off and an automatic opener with buttons in an accessible location at interior and exterior to the main entrance.

Our retirement home layouts provide for administrative, amenity and hospitality spaces grouped for efficiency and social interaction. Our designers also include an outdoor weather protected amenity and hospitality space with wheelchair access from the indoor common area. We design wide exit stairs and wide corridors with handrails on both sides and lighted bright and evenly for visibility. We always provide elevators in all retirement homes that are two stories or higher, with an emergency power source such as a stand-alone natural gas generator. We design the doors to have low resistance closers and paddle type deadbolts. We prefer bathroom shower is for seniors’ accessibility.

Our typical retirement home designs include office space for staff, an entrance lobby, lounge, activity room for seniors, a commercial kitchen/serving area, common dining room and common laundry rooms on each floor with a small seating adjacent.

Fire alarms, sprinklers and smoke detectors are also always included in our retirement home design. All the retirement homes licensed under the Retirement Homes Act, 2010 are required to be equipped with automatic fire sprinklers. Our landscape design includes strongly scented flowers and herbs for sensory stimulation.

We design retirement homes in Ontario as a place for seniors to live and not a place to die. Our architectural and engineering designers are well experienced and skilled in retirement home design and construction and can save lots of money through understanding how to properly design for a retirement home while enhancing operational efficiency. Our engineers and architects are focused on sustainable design and construction of retirement homes in conjunction with energy efficient designs to lower energy and operating costs.

Typical design deficiencies noted at several retirement homes in Ontario:

  • Two seniors with walkers/wheelchairs could not pass each other in the hallway - Doorway entrances and hallways need to accommodate wheelchairs and walkers.
  • Getting around the bed and navigating the bathroom - bathrooms won't accommodate a mobility device, and for those who required a personal support worker to assist with bathing, there was often no room for two people in a tiny bathroom.
  • No raised toilets and transfer
  • Adjacent flooring is not in flush
  • Door sills with lip
  • Individual doors are not easily identifiable
  • No levered faucets and door handles

Our LEED professionals are experts in the complexity and integration of today’s building systems to improve retirement home's performance through:

  • Reduced operating costs
  • Conservation of natural resources
  • Optimized equipment life-cycle
  • Enhanced occupant comfort and health
  • Increased productivity
  • Improved air and water quality
  • Reduced waste

We are committed to offering our expertise in conjunction with LEED goals to promote whole-building design practices with specific focus on sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy & atmosphere, materials & resources, indoor environmental quality and innovation and design. Our design typically includes

  • Low flow fixtures in all bathrooms; 1.28 gpf toilets, 1.5 gpm showers & faucets.
  • Closed cell foam and fiberglass batts in wall cavities; under slab insulation with a thermal break, blown in cellulose in attics, and efficient windows complete the thermal envelope.
  • High efficiency condensing boilers provide radiant heat & domestic hot water.
  • Cooling provided via mini split systems but most of the project not cooling given the high performance envelope.
  • Sophisticated resident tracking and emergency response systems, enhanced ventilation systems, anti-microbial carpets, new food preparation systems, and computer-based monitoring and communications systems.
  • Use of insulated concrete form system to build retirement homes reduce noise transmission, improve energy efficiency and thermal resistance within the building and speed up construction.

The insulated concrete form system consists of two layers of polystyrene insulation into which the concrete is poured. These forms are permanent and become part of a superior, energy efficient, insulated monolithic concrete wall which reduces noise transmission; improves energy efficiency and thermal resistance within the unit. These walls lower utility costs while providing a safe, quiet retirement home as well as adding resale value. We recommend the use of helix fiber in the concrete to replace rebar on all horizontal and vertical interior walls.

To create healthier indoor environments, reduce building operating costs, reduce resource consumption, water and energy use, our design and construction management include extensive use of low-emitting materials/finishes; energy-efficient mechanical systems; and sustainable site development strategies including native landscaping with 99% drought-tolerant plants on-site, habitat restoration, storm water management quantity and quality control and 87% of construction waste diverted from the project.

Stringent Ontario Building Code, ASHRAE requirements and pressure from building owners to create energy efficient buildings has made thermal performance more important than ever. It is important when selecting construction products that the overall thermal efficiency is taken into consideration. The thermal efficiency and thermal mass performance ultimately dictate the ability to minimize the energy used in heating and air conditioning. The Thermal mass that is created with insulated concrete form system offer R-Values of up to R-50. Insulated concrete form structures are warm in the winter, cool in the summer, have no dampness or mold and are stronger than traditional built structures. Also insulated concrete form system provide dry comfortable basements. Exposed concrete face of the insulated concrete form system meets the requirements for non-combustible construction.

Ontario Building Code Requirements for Retirement Homes

All buildings containing retirement homes require architect and professional engineer general review (Div. C, Table 1.2.2.1)

  • Ontario Building Code Part 3 only – no longer permitted to use Part 9 of the Ontario Building code
  • Retirement home considered to be separate major occupancy for Ontario Building Code Subsection 3.2.2 purposes (3.2.2.4 –3.2.2.8)
  • New construction Articles introduced – 3.2.2.48A to 3.2.2.48E
  • All retirement homes require sprinkler protection
  • Combustible construction options to construct a new retirement home up to 4 storeys
  • NFPA 13R sprinkler design permitted for new constrcution of retirement homes up to 3 storeys (3.2.5.13)
  • Required Minimum Fire Separation / Rating of Floor Assemblies
  • Up to 3 Storey, 1,600 m2 Combustible Construction – 45 min
  • Up to 3 Storey, 1,650 m2 Combustible Construction - 1 hr

Fire compartmentalization of retirement home floor areas

  • Maximum 1,000 m2 area per fire compartment
  • 1 h fire separation (45 min fire separation permitted if floor assembly is permitted to be less than 1 hr)
  • Closures in fire separation to be designed to delay the passage of smoke (e.g. weatherstripping)
  • Maximum travel distance of 45 m from any point in a fire compartment to a door to the adjoining fire compartment
  • Accommodation for the fire compartment’s occupants plus the occupants of the largest adjacent fire compartment (1.5 m2/ resident)
  • Maximum dead-end corridor of 3 m
  • Minimum clear doorway width of 860 mm - Applies to all doorways serving residents
  • Voice communication system required
  • A retirement home constructed in accordance with Article 3.2.2.48E., where the fire separation required by Sentence 3.3.4.11.(2) on the storey immediately below the roof assembly is continuous to the underside of the roof deck.

3.2.2.48A. Group C, Retirement Home, Any Height, Any Area, Sprinklered

Except as permitted by Articles 3.2.2.48B. to 3.2.2.48E., a retirement home shall conform to Sentence (2).

Except as permitted by Article 3.2.2.16., the retirement home referred to in Sentence (1) shall be of noncombustible construction, and,

  • except as permitted by Sentence 3.2.2.7.(1), the retirement home shall be sprinklered,
  • floor assemblies shall be fire separations with a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 h,
  • mezzanines shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 h, and
  • load bearing walls, columns and arches shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that required for the supported assembly.

3.2.2.48B. Group C, Retirement Home, up to 4 Storeys, Sprinklered, Increased Area

A retirement home is permitted to conform to Sentence (2) provided,

  • except as permitted by Sentence 3.2.2.7.(1), the building is sprinklered,
  • it is not more than 4 storeys in building height, and
  • it has a building area not more than,

12 000 m2 if 1 storey in building height,

6 000 m2 if 2 storeys in building height,

4 000 m2 if 3 storeys in building height, or

3 000 m2 if 4 storeys in building height.

(Video) Nursing Home Prices and how to pay Them

The retirement home referred to in Sentence (1) is permitted to be of combustible construction or noncombustible construction used singly or in combination, and,

  • floor assemblies shall be fire separations with a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 h,
  • mezzanines shall have, if of combustible construction, a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 h, and
  • loadbearing walls, columns and arches shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that required for the supported assembly.

3.2.2.48C. Group C, Retirement Home, up to 4 Storeys, Sprinklered

A retirement home is permitted to conform to Sentence (2) provided,

  • except as permitted by Sentence 3.2.2.7.(1), the building is sprinklered,
  • it is not more than 4 storeys in building height, and
  • it has a building area not more than,

6,600 m2 if 1 storey in building height,

3,300 m2 if 2 storeys in building height,

2 200 m2 if 3 storeys in building height, or

1 650 m2 if 4 storeys in building height.

The retirement home referred to in Sentence (1) is permitted to be of combustible construction or noncombustible construction used singly or in combination, and,

  • floor assemblies shall be fire separations with a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 h,
  • mezzanines shall have, if of combustible construction, a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 h, and
  • load bearing walls, columns and arches shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that required for the supported assembly.

3.2.2.48D. Group C, Retirement Home, up to 3 Storeys, Sprinklered, Noncombustible Construction

A retirement home is permitted to conform to Sentence (2) provided,

  • except as permitted by Sentence 3.2.2.7.(1), the building is sprinklered,
  • it is not more than 3 storeys in building height, and
  • it has a building area that is,

not limited if the retirement home is not more than 1 storey in building height,

not more than 12 000 m2 if 2 storeys in building height, or

not more than 8 000 m2 if 3 storeys in building height.

Except as permitted by Article 3.2.2.16., the retirement home referred to in Sentence (1) is permitted to be of noncombustible construction, and,

  • floor assemblies shall be fire separations with a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 h,
  • mezzanines shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 h, and
  • load bearing walls, columns and arches shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that required for the supported assembly.

3.2.2.48E. Group C, Retirement Home, up to 3 Storeys, Sprinklered, Combustible Construction

A retirement home is permitted to conform to Sentence (2) provided,

  • except as permitted by Sentence 3.2.2.7.(1), the retirement home is sprinklered,
  • it is not more than 3 storeys in building height, and
  • it has a building area not more than,

4 800 m2 if 1 storey in building height,

2 400 m2 if 2 storeys in building height, or

1 600 m2 if 3 storeys in building height.

The retirement home referred to in Sentence (1) is permitted to be of combustible construction or noncombustible construction used singly or in combination, and,

  • floor assemblies shall be fire separations with a fire-resistance rating not less than 45 min,
  • mezzanines shall have, if of combustible construction, a fire-resistance rating not less than 45 min, and
  • load bearing walls, columns and arches shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that required for the supported assembly.

We are well experienced in age-friendly and dementia-friendly environments that will positively impact elders’ experiences in later life. Our engineers and architectural designers are very knowledgeable and directly involved in seniors’ housing, retirement and assisted living residences, long-term care homes as well as complex continuing care and acute hospitals in Ontario.

Our mandate is to inspire developers of retirement homes in Ontario to reach their potential in making a difference in the lives of elders every day.

For additional information, contact anytime

Land & Building Experts

Edgar Labuac, P.Eng., Structural Engineer

Joo Min Park, MEng. - Municipal Engineer

Lan Yao, MEng - Civil Engineer

Saloni Khoja, B.Arch - Architectural Designer

Miaoyi Xue, B.ASc – Administrator

S.Kathirgamanathan, P.Eng - Project Manager (Residential & Institutional Construction)

647 340 8649 (Direct Land Line);

416 727 8336 (Text Messages)

Our service area in Ontario includes Acton, Ajax, Alliston, Angus, Aurora, Aylmer, Ayr, Barrie, Beamsville, Beeton, Belleville, Blue Mountains, Bobcaygeon, Bolton, Borden, Bowmanville, Bradford, Brampton, Brant, Brantford, Bracebridge, Brighton, Brock, Burlington, Caledon, Caledon East, Caledonia, Cambridge, Campbellford, Clarington, Collingwood, Cobourg, Crystal Beach, Delhi, Dunnville, East Gwillimbury, Elmira, Erin, Exeter, Fergus, Fort Erie, Georgetown, Georgina, Grand Valley, Gravenhurst, Greater Napanee, Grimsby, Guelph, Haldimand County, Halton Hills, Hamilton, Hanover, Huntsville, Ingersoll, Innisfil, Kawartha Lakes, Keswick, King, Kitchener, Lincoln, Lindsay, Listowel, London, Markham, Meaford, Midland, Milton, Minto, Mississauga, Mono, Mitchell, Mount Albert, Mount Forest, New Hamburg, New Tecumseth, Newcastle, Newmarket, Niagara Falls, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Nobleton, Norfolk County, Oakville, Orangeville, Orillia, Oshawa, Owen Sound, Paris, Parry Sound, Pelham, Penetanguishene, Peterborough, Pickering, Picton, Port Colborne, Port Dover, Port Elgin, Port Hope, Port Perry, Prince Edward County, Quinte West, Richmond Hill, Rockwood, St.Catharines, St. Marys, St. Thomas, Scugog, Shelburne, Simcoe, Southampton, South Bruce Peninsula, Stayner, Stouffville, Stratford, Strathroy, Sutton, Tay, Thorold, Tillsonburg, Toronto, Tottenham, Uxbridge, Vaughan, Vineland, Walkerton, Wasaga Beach, Waterloo, Welland, West Gwillimbury, Whitby, and Woodstock. 

CMHC provides access to preferred interest rates lowering borrowing costs for the construction of Retirement Homes for seniors requiring minimal to moderate levels of care in order to live independently, with minimum of 50+ units/beds and at least 75% providing single/private occupancy, by providing construction financing for Retirement Homes up to 85% of lending value as determined by CMHC or 100% of the actual construction cost of the Retirement Home, whichever amount is less.

During construction of the Retirement Home, the loan can be advanced up to 70% of costs or lending value, whichever is less. The advancing of additional funds is subject to rental achievement. Construction must be completed under a fixed price contract with a general contractor or under a construction management arrangement.

Town of Bradford West Gwillimbury

(Video) How to Invest in Senior Living Facilities

Development Charges for a 16,500 sq. 25+2 Room Retirement Home with private well/septic:

Town of Bradford West Gwillimbury - $105,435

County of Simcoe - $52,140

Education - $9,735

Total Development Charges $167,310

Town of Georgina

Development Charges for a 16,500 sq.ft. 25+2 Room Retirement Home with private well/septic:

Town of Georgina - $13,200

Region of York - $181,005

Education - $17,655

Total Development Charges: $211,860

Town of East Gwillimbury

Development Charges for a 16,500 sq.ft. 25+2 Room Retirement Home with private well/septic:

Town of East Gwillimbury - $25,410

Region of York - $181,005

Education - $17,655

Total Development Charges: $224,070

Township of Severn

Development Charges for a 16,500 sq.ft. 25+2 Room Retirement Home with private well/septic:

Township of Severn - $66,980

County of Simcoe - $52,140

Education - $9,735

Total Development Charges: $128,855

Municipalities are permitted to enter into deferral agreements pursuant to section 27(1) of the Development Charges Act, 1997 which states:

“a municipality may enter into an agreement with a person who is required to pay a development charge providing for all or any part of a development charge to be paid before or after it would otherwise be payable”.

Some municipalities defer development charges up to 3 years and waive interest on development charges. Municipality of Leamington waived / eliminated the development charges completely.

Section 69(2) of the Planning Act provides municipalities with the flexibility to reduce or waive development charges associated with the processing of planning applications. A deferral agreement shall be required for the deferral of the Development Charges and Planning Application Fees.

Newly Built Retirement Homes in Ontario:

The Elden of Bradford,

3131 8th Line, Bradford, Ontario, L3Z 4H2

Care Type: Independent Living, Assisted Living

Guest stays available, Respite Care available, Private Home-care allowed, Convalescent Care

Cost: Starting from $3,099 per month

Total Suites: 152

Holland Gardens,

552 Holland St W, Bradford, Ontario, L3Z 2H4

(Video) Half of California's New Homes Got Sued, What's the Problem | Larry Salzman

Care Type: Independent Living, Assisted Living, Dementia & Memory Care, Respite care available, Private home-care allowed

Cost: Starting from $3,250 per month

Total Suites: 138 - Guest stays available,

Carp Commons Retirement Village,

458 Donald B. Munro Drive, Carp, Ontario, K0A 1L0

Care Type: Independent Living, Assisted Living, Dementia & Memory Care, Respite Care available, Private Home-care allowed, Convalescent Care

Cost: Starting from $3,300 per month

Total Suites: 129 - Guest stays available,

Oakcrossing Retirement Living,

1238 Oakcrossing Road, London, Ontario, N6H 0G2

Care Type: Independent Living, Assisted Living, Respite Care available, Private Home-care allowed, Palliative Care available

Cost: Starting from $3,200 per month

Total Suites: 101 - Guest stays available,

Presentation Manor,

61 Fairfax Crescent, Scarborough, Ontario, M1L 1Z7

Care Type: Independent Living, Assisted Living

Cost: starting from $3,275 per month

Total Suites: 249 - Guest stays available,

Forestview Retirement Residence,

537 Finch avenue West, Toronto, Ontario, M2R 0A8

Care Type: Independent Living, Assisted Living

Guest stays available, Respite Care available, Private Home-care allowed, Convalescent Care

Cost: Starting from $3,100 per month

Total Suites: 128

Our design features of a retirement home depend on the type of retirement home, the scale of the retirement home, the type and level of services and supports provided by the retirement home, and the unique development of a retirement home project. We design retirement home with seniors’ comfort and safety in mind.

Our retirement home designers always create spaces that encourage more seniors’ activity and participation, and spaces that are calmer and more restful for the seniors.

We design retirement homes as a place for seniors to live and not a place to die. Our architectural and engineering designers are well experienced and skilled in retirement home design and construction and can save lots of money through understanding how to properly design for a retirement home while enhancing operational efficiency. Our engineers and architects are focused on sustainable design and construction of retirement homes in conjunction with energy efficient designs to lower energy and operating costs.

We design build independent and assisted living retirement homes in Ontario including Acton, Ajax, Alliston, Angus, Aurora, Aylmer, Ayr, Barrie, Beamsville, Beeton, Belleville, Blue Mountains, Bobcaygeon, Bolton, Borden, Bowmanville, Bradford, Brampton, Brant, Brantford, Bracebridge, Brighton, Brock, Burlington, Caledon, Caledon East, Caledonia, Cambridge, Campbellford, Clarington, Collingwood, Cobourg, Crystal Beach, Delhi, Dunnville, East Gwillimbury, Elmira, Erin, Exeter, Fergus, Fort Erie, Georgetown, Georgina, Grand Valley, Gravenhurst, Greater Napanee, Grimsby, Guelph, Haldimand County, Halton Hills, Hamilton, Hanover, Huntsville, Ingersoll, Innisfil, Kawartha Lakes, Keswick, King, Kitchener, Lincoln, Lindsay, Listowel, London, Markham, Meaford, Midland, Milton, Minto, Mississauga, Mono, Mitchell, Mount Albert, Mount Forest, New Hamburg, New Tecumseth, Newcastle, Newmarket, Niagara Falls, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Nobleton, Norfolk County, Oakville, Orangeville, Orillia, Oshawa, Owen Sound, Paris, Parry Sound, Pelham, Penetanguishene, Peterborough, Pickering, Picton, Port Colborne, Port Dover, Port Elgin, Port Hope, Port Perry, Prince Edward County, Quinte West, Richmond Hill, Rockwood, St.Catharines, St. Marys, St. Thomas, Scugog, Shelburne, Simcoe, Southampton, South Bruce Peninsula, Stayner, Stouffville, Stratford, Strathroy, Sutton, Tay, Thorold, Tillsonburg, Toronto, Tottenham, Uxbridge, Vaughan, Vineland, Walkerton, Wasaga Beach, Waterloo, Welland, West Gwillimbury, Whitby, and Woodstock. 

Many retirement homes are now reduced to a single access point to prevent COVID-19. COVID-19’s unique pressures and uncertain duration may change the array of retirement home amenities and methods of social engagement and activities for years to come including in-room entertainment, decentralized dining, virtual socialization, virtual streaming for exercise, spiritual services, learning activities and other features that could help with infection control protocols to prevent COVID-19.

There is immense pressure on retirement homes to offset the negative effects of required social distancing due to COVID-19 is having on quality of life of the residents of every retirement home which relies on socialization to keep the retirement home vibrant and full. Some retirement homes are finding very creative solutions to offset social isolation including doling out drinks and snacks from mobile carts; arranging hallway parties; and holding social events outdoor in the fresh air, even if the residents themselves are only observing. Designers of retirement homes play a very important role in maintaining a focus on the health and safety of the residents of retirement homes to keep the residents of retirement homes safe from COVID-19 and future infection control protocols for more potential routine challenges, while balancing design solutions that protect and improve the social and mental wellness of residents of retirement homes where residents can live, socialize and dine together in strategically separated self contained smaller groups. The ability to have access to outdoors via a small terrace or balcony becomes very important to the sanity and the health and wellness of residents of retirement homes.

Still have questions?

Call Us Anytime

647 340 8649

Text Messages
416 727 8336

(Video) Dave Ramsey's Guide To Building Your Own Home

Email
landbuildex@gmail.com

PEO COA # 100205934



FAQs

Are retirement homes a good option for senior citizens? ›

Overall, the facilities provide a blend of healthcare, hospitality and housing – making retirement homes a good option for individuals who want to continue living independently in their old age. Living in a retirement home also has psychological benefits.

What is the difference between a nursing home and retirement village? ›

A Retirement Village is primarily self-care, i.e. you look after yourself, & choose to make the move to a Retirement Village (if you are over 55 years of age). An aged care facility requires the potential resident to have an ACAT assessment, & usually involves some level of care, either personal or nursing care.

Do retirement flats hold their value? ›

Most retirement flats tend to hold their value and therefore sell at a similar price to that of when you bought it.

Are retirement homes profitable? ›

Stable assisted living communities have a profit operating profit margin between 28 and 38% – though the margin decreases in facilities with a memory care component.

What age is considered old for a house? ›

Age is subjective when it comes to houses, but an unwritten rule is that if a home is 50 years or older it's considered “old” and a home built before 1920 is considered “antique.” There are many factors that can contribute to the condition your potential dream home may be in, and thankfully most can be caught during ...

What should I consider in a retirement home? ›

To help you or your family locate the ideal retirement community, we've developed a list of the most important things to think about.
  • Accessible independent living community. ...
  • Conversation, dining, and a hearty meal. ...
  • Retirement home options. ...
  • The habits and lifestyle that work best for you.
27 Aug 2022

Are retirement villages worth it? ›

Because retirement villages are purpose-built for older people, they offer many lifestyle and practical benefits. Residents enjoy a strong sense of community, feel safe and secure and can enjoy more quality time with family and friends.

How much does it cost to live in a retirement village UK? ›

Service charges range from £136.52 per week for a one bed and £181.74 for a two-bed apartment. Audley Retirement Villages' St Elphin's Park in the Peak District features 127 properties, starting from £225,000, and provides a restaurant, bistro bar, health centre and fitness suite.

Why are retirement homes hard to sell? ›

The Covid-19 pandemic made the market even tougher, as many older people were shielding at home and reluctant to view property. “Retirement homes have always been hard to sell, but in the last year, they have been particularly difficult, if not impossible,” says one agent in Greater London [speaking in spring 2021].

What are the pitfalls of buying into a retirement village? ›

Exit Fees & Options

Departure or exit fees are common pitfalls of buying into a retirement village. People tend to lose money when they decide to leave a retirement village simply because they didn't understand the terms before signing them.

What are the disadvantages of living in a 55+ community? ›

The disadvantages of retirement communities include they aren't cheap, could be in a less than an optimal location, smaller living area, lack of diversity, cliques/gossip and restrictive/excessive rules. They can range from condo/apartment style facilities to gated communities with individual houses.

Why retirees are selling their homes? ›

Retirees thinking of selling their home will receive a large influx of funds and will no longer be required to pay property taxes, homeowners insurance, or repairs and maintenance costs. There are also capital gains tax breaks for qualified taxpayers to exclude tax liability on a portion of capital gains.

What do most retirement homes provide? ›

Here are some common amenities and shared spaces that you'll find in a retirement community.
  • Putting greens.
  • Theater rooms.
  • Business centers.
  • Billiards and darts.
  • Exercise equipment.
  • Fireside patios and kitchens.
  • Jacuzzis, spas, and massage rooms.
  • Indoor and outdoor swimming pools.

Do people in retirement homes feel lonely? ›

40% of nursing home residents exhibit a sense of loneliness, while the greater loneliness and solitude, the lower the quality of life.

What is the average life expectancy of a person in a nursing home? ›

The average length of stay before death was 13.7 months, while the median was five months. Fifty-three percent of nursing home residents in the study died within six months. Men died after a median stay of three months, while women died after a median stay of eight months.

Why is a rental property ideal for an elderly person? ›

With older people as tenants, a landlord does not risk to face delayed rental payments, which means reliable rental income. Once elderly people have found the best investment property to rent, they are not likely to move out.

When should you put Mom in home? ›

If your loved one can't care for themselves, this is a surefire sign that they may need assisted living. Some other signs about when is it time to place a parent in a nursing home are that they: Need help eating, using the restroom, standing, walking, laying down, and performing personal hygiene routines.

Is it better to buy or rent when you are 70 years old? ›

In theory, buying a house after retirement gets you more for your money than renting. However, homeownership also entails substantial financial risks. Issues such as fluctuations in market value, unexpected maintenance expenses, and insurance deductibles can increase costs over and above those of renting.

Is 70 too old to buy a house? ›

While there is no maximum age for applying for a mortgage, you may find it is tougher to qualify for certain mortgage products. Discrimination based on age is illegal due to the Equal Credit Opportunity Act. However, when lenders underwrite a loan, they have to ascertain their risk.

Is it wise to buy a house at age 60? ›

Buying a house after 60 is a big financial decision that could impact the remainder of your retirement. Thanks to the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, there is no age limit to taking out a mortgage. As long as you can meet the financial requirements, you're allowed to take out a loan at any time.

How much should you spend on a house in retirement? ›

The 25% rule of thumb while retired

My suggestion is to limit your mortgage, or rent, payment to less than 25% of your total retirement income. 25% still is low enough, that for many of us, after a mortgage and income tax payments, less than 40% of your income is going away to taxes and mortgage payments.

Where is the best place to retire? ›

More than two-thirds (68%) of the top 25 metro areas to retire are either in Florida or Pennsylvania.
...
Here are the top 10 place to retire for 2022-2023:
  • Lancaster, PA.
  • Harrisburg, PA.
  • Pensacola, FL.
  • Tampa, FL.
  • York, PA.
  • Naples, FL.
  • Daytona Beach, FL.
  • Ann Arbor, MI.
1 Nov 2022

How much is maintenance fee in the villages? ›

All residents or “Villagers” pay a monthly amenity fee of $164. The amenity fee covers: Free golf on 42 executive courses. Over 80 outdoor and indoor recreation facilities.

What happens if a retirement village goes bust? ›

Where a village faces insolvency, residents now have rights ahead of those who have security interests. Consequently, for example, residents cannot be evicted or denied any facilities they would normally be entitled to by a village's mortgagee where default occurs.

What is the average age of people in retirement villages? ›

Anyone who is 55 and over can live in a retirement village, however we find that residents in our villages are usually around 76 when they move in.

How much do I need to live comfortably in retirement UK? ›

So what are the numbers? According to the trade association, a single person will need £10,200 a year to achieve the minimum living standard, £20,200 a year for moderate, and £33,000 a year for comfortable. For couples it is £15,700, £29,100 and £47,500.

Is it better to rent or buy a retirement flat? ›

The choice of whether you rent or buy a house in retirement is completely up to you and what you want from your retirement - there is no right option. Renting may give you the freedom to move around whenever you want, or some extra money to spend on travelling to places you've always dreamed of.

Why do retirees downsize? ›

Downsizing to a smaller home after retirement can have its advantages, such as addressing mobility issues—where smaller and fewer steps are better—and allowing you to travel. Major things to consider before selling include the cost of moving and the potential loss of friend and family relationships.

Why do old homes last longer? ›

Established houses are built to last, and many aspects of the construction cannot be reproduced today. Older homes might be built with wood made from old-growth trees (trees that attained great age by not being significantly disturbed) and therefore more resistant to rot and warping.

Do you need a survey when buying a retirement flat? ›

Whatever type of property you are looking to purchase, always ensure you instruct a Chartered Building Surveyor to carry out a full building survey.

Why do retirement villages have exit fees? ›

If you have done research into the cost of moving into a retirement village you will know that a key part of the transaction is the exit fee. The fee can include sharing in any capital gain or loss on a unit, marketing fees, sales commissions and renovation costs.

What is the difference between a retirement village and a lifestyle village? ›

Retirement villages tend to have more care facilities available, whilst at a lifestyle village residents tend to be more able and independent being an average of 9 years younger. It is important to understand that the key differences lie in a couple of things, the legislation and the management.

Does living in a retirement village affect your pension? ›

The current value of your long lease unit in your retirement village does not affect your pension rate entitlement because it is your residential home. It only affects your assets test threshold limit for the value of other assets that you own.

Can I live with my mom in a 55+ community? ›

Can Kids Live with Parents in 55+ Communities? Yes, as long as your child is over 18 and at least one member of the household is 55 or older. However, there are exceptions to this rule, typically on a community-by-community basis.

Do 55+ communities hold their value? ›

If you're buying a house in a 55+ community for your senior years, you may be more focused on the fun the development offers than selling the property later. But since a house in an active adult community isn't likely the last place you'll live, resale value matters. And that value may be less than you think.

Is investing in a 55+ community worth it? ›

These smaller-sized units are a great way to downsize your life and start a new chapter. With 55+ communities, they're able to offer residents a sense of belonging and community. You're able to connect with neighbors of similar ages and continue to enjoy your retirement years in a safe and peaceful environment.

Do retirees spend less money as they age? ›

Research shows that average retired households see their spending fall between 0.75% and 0.80% each year in retirement. However, how much your spending will decline in retirement is often linked to your level of wealth and physical health.

Should retirees sell home and rent? ›

Selling your home and renting may free up money that you can invest. That keeps you liquid and can increase your overall income during your retirement years. Investments often grow at a faster rate than real estate appreciates, making them an even better use of your money.”

Do most retired people own their homes? ›

Close to 80 percent of people 65 and older own their own homes. But renting appears to be on the rise among older people, according to an analysis of Census Bureau data by RentCafe, an apartment search website.

What age do most people go to a retirement home? ›

There are some who move in close to the minimum age requirement (usually about 65), but most make the move between the ages of 75 and 84. The typical assisted living resident is an 87-year-old woman who needs help with two or three activities of daily living, such as dressing, bathing and medication management.

What type of housing is best for retirement? ›

5 Housing Options for a Comfortable Retirement
  • Modify your current home. It can be difficult to say goodbye to your memory-filled home, especially if it's within close distance to family. ...
  • Purchase a smaller home. ...
  • Downsize to a townhouse. ...
  • Move to condo living. ...
  • Invest in an independent living community.

What is the average cost of a senior living facility? ›

Average Cost of Senior Living. The average cost of living in an assisted care facility can range anywhere from $1,500 to $10,000 a month. And while the latter may seem astronomical, it's important to consider how much senior living costs, even from home.

What do retirees fear most? ›

71% reported they were worried about being less mentally active in retirement, and 64% about being less physically active. Contrast this with the prospect of losing social and friendship ties from work where 50% of respondents found it a frightening prospect.

Can an 80 year old live alone? ›

Essentially, as long as the 80-year-old has access to help and socialization and can take care of their own needs, they can live alone. However, they should not always be alone. Their children or other family members should check on them several times a week to determine if they can still live alone.

Where do lonely seniors go? ›

Drop in at the Local Senior Center (Virtually or In Person)

Senior centers, also called adult activity centers, are where many seniors go to socialize, take exercise classes, and learn new things. Give the ones in your area a call, or look them up online.

What is the point of retirement homes? ›

Retirement communities give residents a strong sense of belonging and purpose, catering to seniors who are relishing in newfound freedom – freedom from homeownership, freedom from housekeeping, freedom from cooking, freedom from a to-do list.

What are the pitfalls of buying a retirement flat? ›

What to consider before you buy into a retirement village
  • The purchase price. One of the biggest downsides is cost. ...
  • Service charges and ground rent. ...
  • Resale value. ...
  • Failure to accommodate your specific health needs. ...
  • Exit fees. ...
  • Not everyone's cup of tea.
9 Oct 2018

Is it better to rent or buy after retirement? ›

In theory, buying a house after retirement gets you more for your money than renting. However, homeownership also entails substantial financial risks. Issues such as fluctuations in market value, unexpected maintenance expenses, and insurance deductibles can increase costs over and above those of renting.

Why are retirees selling their homes? ›

Retirees thinking of selling their home will receive a large influx of funds and will no longer be required to pay property taxes, homeowners insurance, or repairs and maintenance costs. There are also capital gains tax breaks for qualified taxpayers to exclude tax liability on a portion of capital gains.

Why do people end up in retirement homes? ›

Some type of disability when it comes to performing the activities of daily living (ADLs) is the most common reason that older people live in nursing homes. Not surprisingly, people living in nursing homes generally have more disability than people living at home.

How many properties do you need to retire comfortably? ›

So at a minimum, a couple will need to own their own home and three debt-free rental properties to provide a modest retirement. Five rental properties gets our couple very close to ASIC's comfortable retirement. Six or more houses and we can start to relax a little.
...
How many rental properties do I need to retire on?
Rental Property Expenses
Total Expenses$ 8,000
10 more rows

Videos

1. How Nursing Homes Hide Profits While Residents Suffer
(VICE News)
2. Where Should We Retire? Searching for Lakefront or Waterfront Retirement Property
(Retirement in Color)
3. 10 Housing Options For Older Adults - 55+
(Senior Safety Advice)
4. Using a Specialist to Buy Land and Build a Home in Asheville and Western North Carolina
(AndrewSellsAsheville)
5. Learn From the Experts: Retirement Homes
(Northampton Open Media)
6. Converting Rentals to Res. Assisted Living with Gene Guarino
(FlipNerd)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Duncan Muller

Last Updated: 01/13/2023

Views: 5739

Rating: 4.9 / 5 (79 voted)

Reviews: 94% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Duncan Muller

Birthday: 1997-01-13

Address: Apt. 505 914 Phillip Crossroad, O'Konborough, NV 62411

Phone: +8555305800947

Job: Construction Agent

Hobby: Shopping, Table tennis, Snowboarding, Rafting, Motor sports, Homebrewing, Taxidermy

Introduction: My name is Duncan Muller, I am a enchanting, good, gentle, modern, tasty, nice, elegant person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.